Shape step three meterseans the box plots of land to own Put 3

Shape step three meterseans the box plots of land to own Put 3

The common score are 1.478 from the plosive condition, step 1.45 on the fricative condition, 1.707 throughout the nasal updates, and step 1.942 throughout the liquids status. A reduced section when you look at the Dining table 3 summarises the outcome of model from Put 3. This new standard is actually the brand new fricative reputation, so we compared the latest plosive compared to. fricative conditions, new nasal vs. fricative standards, and also the water compared to. fricative standards. Earliest, the essential difference between the fresh new plosive and you may fricative standards wasn’t reliable, given that 95% CI associated with coefficient imagine integrated zero [?0.06, 0.09]. 2nd, brand new nose compared to. fricative and water vs. fricative comparisons indicated that each of the fresh new coefficient quotes have been confident (? = 0.16) (nasal) and you can (? = 0.3) (liquid) and you may both of the newest 95% CIs failed to become no ([0.09, 0.24] (nasal) and you can [0.23, 0.38] (liquid)), and so indicating you to definitely nonce terms which have nasals and h2o was in fact evaluated are alot more kawaii labels compared to those having fricatives.


The present day studies showed that (1) labial consonants will end up being of this kawaii than just coronal and you can dorsal consonants, (2) high-frequency consonants are more likely to become of this kawaii than just low-regularity consonants, and you will (3) h2o /?/ and you can nose /n/ may end up being on the kawaii than fricative /z/ (and you may plosive /d/). This type of abilities advise that the area-of-articulation element from the kawaii try [labial], additionally the volume function with the kawaii are [high-frequency]. The way-of-articulation feature need next discussion. As consonant proving the highest average rating is h2o /?/, we are able to assume that manner-of-articulation ability associated with kawaii is [liquid]. Yet not, because the Bayesian investigation presented, nasal /n/ is much more apt to be of kawaii than fricative /z/. Therefore, we could conclude you to definitely liquid and nasals, all of being [sonorant], are associated with the kawaii.

Standard conversation

This study showed that the features of consonants associated with kawaii in Japanese are [labial], [high frequency], and [sonorant]. The motivations for the three features are briefly discussed below. The feature [labial] may be linked to a pouting gesture, that is, a gesture made using both lips can induce Japanese people to feel kawaii (Kumagai, 2020). The feature [labial] may also be linked to the image of babies, in that bilabial consonants are more frequent in the earlier phases of language acquisition (Kumagai and Kawahara, 2020). Thus, it can be said that consonants with feature [labial] can evoke the image of babies, at least in Japanese. The feature [high frequency] may stem from smallness, as the frequency code hypothesis states that high-frequency sounds are associated with smallness (Ohala, 1984, 1994). The feature [sonorant] may be connected to a number of observations on sound symbolic effects in names and shapes. Sonorants are better suited for female names or rounded shapes (Shinohara and Kawahara, 2013; Asano et al., 2015). To summarise, the factors associated with kawaii may include pouting gesture, babyishness, smallness, femininity, and roundness. It is interesting that some of these factors overlap with the factors noted by Kinsella (1995) for cute characters. She noted that ‘The essential anatomy of a cute cartoon character consists in its being small, soft, infantile, mammalian, round, without bodily appendages (e.g., arms), without bodily orifices (e.g., mouths), non-sexual, mute, insecure, helpless or bewildered’. (p. 226; emphasis mine). Taking the fact into consideration that Kinsella (1995) was published more than 25 years ago, it is inferred that something that evokes kawaii in the minds of Japanese speakers has not changed for at least 25 years.

As noted in the introduction section, it is well known that sound symbolism plays an important role in ; Klink and Wu, 2014). The exploration of what consonants are better suited for kawaii names is an interesting topic. Based on the above discussion, it is inferred that the consonants that induce the feeling of kawaii among Japanese people include /p/, /?/, and /m/, as the first consonant /p/ is specified with [labial] and [high frequency], the second consonant /?/ with [sonorant], and the third consonant /m/ with [labial] and [sonorant]. Based on his kawaii judgment experiment with Japanese speakers, Kumagai (2019) discusses whether /m/, in addition to /p/, is another consonant expressive of kawaii in Japanese, since his study results demonstrated that fewest differences existed regarding average scores between nonce words with /p/ and those with /m/. In Japanese words or character names that seem to be associated with kawaii, we find examples that contain /p/, /?/, or /m/. For example, a mimetic word, or onomatopoeia, purupuru, is used to express something soft or something that trembles like jelly. We also find a cute character name pomupomu purin ‘Pom Pom Purin’, created by Sanrio. Moreover, Kawahara (2019) reported that bilabial consonants and /?/ are often used in girls’ names in a popular Japanese anime PreCure, broadcast since 2004. It is expected that these consonants will prove applicable in naming anime characters or products that are characterised by kawaii.

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