Cognitive Dissonance Theory TheoryHub Academic theories reviews for research and T&L

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 107, 22014–22019. For participants who were not asked to lie, and for participants who lied in exchange for $20, they tended to report that the study indeed wasn’t very interesting. After all, participants who had told a lie for $20 felt that they could justify the lie because they were paid relatively well (in other words, receiving the large sum of money reduced their feelings of dissonance).

This model proposed that the psychological stress was caused by the feeling of being self-responsible for inducing aversive consequences, rather than the inconsistency in cognitive elements. For instance, Leon Festinger called tension arising from two or more inconsistent cognitions cognitive dissonance. According to him, it is human nature to sustain an internal consistency among opinions and attitudes.

TEN The Role of Social Support: Data on Mass Phenomena

According to Csikszentmihalyi, a distinguishing feature of the centers of creativity throughout history was that they were at the crossroads of cultures and cosmopolitan life in those cities. Asyncronicities at the interpersonal level may occur in the family environment, too. Robert S. Albert and Runco argued that incongruent parent–child relations can create tension, which enables the child to develop autonomy.

  • Yet, this model appears to be a relevant framework to examine the characteristics of the CDS.
  • Drawing a person’s attention to the dissonance between their behavior and their values may increase their awareness of the inconsistency and empower them to act.
  • Members of this particular cult had predicted that a massive flood would occur on December 21st of that year and destroy all life on Earth.
  • Before his life in France, Picasso lived in Spain and kept his ties with his native country.

This intellectual tradition proposed that people navigated the world by motivational pushes and pulls, and therefore our behaviours were driven by psychological forces. Based on this intellectual tradition, Festinger was able to predict the magnitude of dissonance in different situations. Csikszentmihalyi used the term cathartic originality to describe the underlying processes of artworks. He argued that the discomforts that are rooted in repressed tensions of childhood may stimulate creative works after the individual becomes mature and better able to handle them. Unsurprisingly, psychoanalytic views on creativity have supported this argument.

Opinion dynamics model based on the cognitive dissonance: An agent-based simulation

Participants were then instructed to write a short essay in favour of the protection of the environment. It was mentioned that their essay could be as long as they wished and that they could inspire themselves with the provided list of quotations if needed. Participants had no time limit to write their essay cognitive dissonance theory and it was emphasized that the content of their essay was the main focus of the research. Perhaps due to these psychometric issues, the Dissonance Thermometer is also not used in a standardized way. This lack of standardization impairs the comparability of the results and limits their interpretation.

  • ] and if the decision was close then the effects of cognitive dissonance should be greater.
  • These are just two examples of the paradoxical consequences of dissonance for persuasion (see the dissonance entry for more in-depth discussion).
  • Similarly, people might be more likely to help if aid is not so personally costly as to make them victims of injustice in the process (see Holmes, Miller, & Lerner, 2002).
  • The second condition necessary for cognitive dissonance to work is that people must have a freedom of choice.

A general theme of that work was that humans often bring about problems unwittingly, as a result of intellectual and creative talents—for example, creating new technologies without being fully able to foresee their long-term consequences. Initially, Festinger’s “archeological” work was perceived as being at the margins of social psychology, but it was later seen as prescient of contemporary developments in evolutionary and cultural psychology. Interaction between the number of reported behaviours and the experimental condition on reports of Pleasure, Arousal and Dominance.

Study 2: Counterattitudinal Essay

In two pre-registered studies, we investigated the usefulness of the PAD model to assess the CDS induced by the hypocrisy paradigm (Study 1) and by writing a counterattitudinal essay (Study 2). Combined together, our two studies show that the CDS induced in the hypocrisy and counterattitudinal paradigms is first and foremost characterised by increased negative valence, as captured presently by the Pleasure dimension. Our studies did not find evidence of a role for Arousal or Dominance change, which suggest that these characteristic are less defining features of the dissonance state. While the sensitivity of the PAD scale seems moderate in regards to our results, we believe that cognitive dissonance scholars should continue to reconnect with general models of emotion to investigate the CDS. It is only by understanding the precise nature of the CDS that the field will be able to construct an internally consistent instrument for its assessment, a subject that has motivated more and more research in recent times (e.g., Levy, Harmon-Jones & Harmon-Jones, 2017).

cognitive dissonance theory

The backfire effect helps to explain why gamete brokers often struggle with changing policy in light of new evidence presented to them about donor families. Despite the bombardment of societal messages to never quit, sometimes changing course is exactly what you should do. By Kendra Cherry, MSEd

Kendra Cherry, MS, is a psychosocial rehabilitation specialist, psychology educator, and author of the “Everything Psychology Book.” Kendra Cherry, MS, is a psychosocial rehabilitation specialist, psychology educator, and author of the “Everything Psychology Book.”

Firstly, Festinger integrated various concepts, including attitudes, beliefs, perceptions, value and behaviours, which had been considered separately as a single construct of cognition. This treatment made it possible for scholars to understand the psychological process as a whole. Secondly, Festinger viewed people’s mental states in a social environment from an intellectual tradition, which was influenced by Kurt Lewin, rather than a Gestalt tradition as Heider did (Cooper, 2007).

  • Festinger (Festinger, 1962) defined the ‘cognition’ as any piece of knowledge that an individual has about themself or their environment.
  • One early study of the effects of information on taste experience was conducted by Carlsmith and Aronson (1963).
  • Cognitive dissonance refers to a situation involving conflicting attitudes, beliefs, or behaviors.
  • When someone tells a lie and feels uncomfortable about it because he fundamentally sees himself as an honest person, he may be experiencing cognitive dissonance.
  • First, it is unclear if the emotion captured in these studies is really the theorized CDS or a confound with other negative emotions.

The scale was the same as in Study 1 and its instructions explained the need to assess the participants’ emotions, as they could influence their essay. At the end of the scale, a complementary question assessed participants’ attitude towards an increase of inscription fees on a 7-point-scale ranging from 1 (totally disagree) to 7 (totally agree). The internal discomfort and tension of cognitive dissonance could contribute to stress or unhappiness.

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